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The Physics and Art of Photography, Volume 2

Energy and color
John Beaver


The Physics and Art of Photography: Energy and color focuses on the physics of energy, power, illuminance and intensity of light, and how these relate to the photographic exposure, including a detailed example that follows the emission of light from the Sun all the way through to the formation of the image in the camera. These concepts are described in both their traditional manner, but also using very-low-sensitivity photography as an example, which brings the physical concepts to the fore in a visible way. Color, in terms of the spectrum of light, is also considered: how it interacts with the subject, and how the camera's light detector interacts with the image focused upon it. But of equal concern is the only partially-understood and sometimes unexpected ways in which the human eye interprets this spectral stimulus as color. This volume covers basic photographic subjects such as shutter, aperture, ISO, metering and exposure value, as well as less familiar topics such as the Jones-Condit equation, Lambertian versus isotropic reflections, reflection and response curves, and the opponent-process model of color perception. Although written at a beginning undergraduate level, the topics are chosen for their role in a more general discussion of the relation between science and art that is of interest to readers of all backgrounds and levels of expertise.

About Editors

John Beaver is a professor of physics and astronomy at the Fox Valley Campus of the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, where he teaches physics, astronomy, photography and interdisciplinary courses. He earned his BS in physics and astronomy in 1985 from Youngstown State University, and his PhD in astronomy in 1992 from The Ohio State University. His published work in astronomy focuses on the topics of spectrophotometry of comets and gaseous nebulae, and multicolor photometry of star clusters.

Table of Contents

I Energy and Photography

1 The Nature of Energy
1.1 Energy Transfer

2 Energy and Exposure
2.1 Defining Our Terms
2.2 Tracing the Energy from Source to Camera
2.3 The Jones-Condit Equation

3 Shutter Speed and Aperture
3.1 Power and Shutter Speed
3.2 Aperture and Focal Ratio

4 Density and the Elements of Exposure
4.1 Reciprocity and Exposure
4.2 Camera Settings
4.3 Choosing between equivalent settings
4.4 Exposure Value (EV)

5 Metering
5.1 Direct-read vs. null meters
5.2 Reflected-light metering
5.3 Incident-light metering
5.4 Flash

6 VLS Detector Photography
6.1 An Exposure Benchmark for VLS Photography
6.2 VLS Photography in Context

7 Ephemeral-Process (EP) and Cyanonegative Photography
7.1 Cyanonegative and EP Wavelength Response
7.2 Cyanonegative Photography
7.3 Ephemeral Process (EP) Photography
7.4 Using EP Photography to Test the Jones-Condit Equation

II The Art and Science of Color

8 The Physical Basis of Color
8.1 Spectra and Sources of Light
8.2 Color, Light Sources and Light Detectors
8.3 The Reflection Curve and the reflected-light spectrum
8.4 Physical Causes of the Reflection Curve
8.5 The Detector Response Curve
8.6 Color and Integration
8.7 The Relation of Color to Black and White Photography

9 The Physiological Basis of Color
9.1 The Three-Color Model of Color Perception
9.2 Additive and Subtractive Colors
9.3 RGB Color Arithmetic
10 The Psychological Basis of Color
10.1 The Opponent-Process Model of Color Perception
10.2 Yellow Without Yellow
10.3 Seeing and Context
10.4 HSV and HSL
10.5 HSV and RGB

11 Filters
11.1 Filters and Black and White Photography
11.2 Filters and Color Photography
11.3 Polarizing Filters

12 "Color" in Astronomy

13 Color Experiments with EP Photography

A Lambertian Reflectors and In-Camera Image Intensity

B A practical way to denote VLS-detector "speed"

C A Practical Guide to EP Photography
C.1 EP Accelerator Formula
C.2 Choosing the Paper
C.3 Preparing the Paper
C.4 The Camera and Lens
C.5 The Film Back
C.6 Washing, Drying and Scanning

D Units, Dimensions and Scientific Notation
D.1 Units and Dimensions
D.2 Scientific Notation


Paperback ISBN: 9780750329545

Ebook ISBN: 9781643273433

DOI: 10.1088/2053-2571/aae504

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers


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