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The Electrostatic Accelerator

A versatile tool
Ragnar Hellborg, Harry J Whitlow


Electrostatic accelerators have been at the forefront of modern technology since the development of the first accelerator by Sir John Cockroft and Ernest Walton in 1932. Theirs was the first to achieve nuclear transmutation and earned them the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951. The applications of Cockroft and Walton's development have been far-reaching, even into our kitchens where it is employed to generate the high voltage needed for the magnetron in microwave ovens. Other electrostatic accelerator related Nobel prize-winning developments that have had a major socio-economic impact are the electron microscope, X-rays, computer tomography (CT) scanners and microelectronic technology where ion implantation is used to dope the semiconductor chips which form the basis of our computers, mobile phones and entertainment systems. Although the electrostatic accelerator field is more than 90 years old, and only a handful of accelerators are used for their original purpose in nuclear physics, the field and the number of accelerators is growing more rapidly than ever. The objective of this book is to collect together the basic science and technology that underlies the electrostatic accelerator field so it can serve as a reference guide and textbook for accelerator engineers as well as students and researchers who work with electrostatic accelerators.

About Editors

Ragnar Hellborg is an emeritus professor of applied physics at Lund University in Sweden. He has worked in the field of applied physics using electrostatic accelerators for more than 50 years.

Harry J Whitlow is a professor of physics and the director of the Louisiana Accelerator Center at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, in the US. He has a long career in applying MeV ion accelerator-based methods to a wide range of fundamental and applied problems.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction
2 The field of accelerator techniques
2.1 Different types of accelerator
2.2 Orbital accelerators
2.2.1 Cyclotrons
2.2.2 Synchrocyclotrons and Isochronous Cyclotrons
2.2.3 Synchrotrons
2.3 Linear Accelerators
2.4 Direct voltage accelerators
2.5 Tandem electrostatic accelerator
3 History of electrostatic accelerators
3.1 Development of Van de Graaff accelerators
3.2 The Herb Accelerators
3.3 Commercially produced accelerators
3.4 The development of tandem accelerators
3.5 The big machines
4 Electrostatics
4.1 Field Distributions
4.2 Potential dividers
5 Insulating gases
6 Charging systems
6.1 Belt charging systems
6.2 Chain charging systems
6.3 Cascade generator charging systems
7 Voltage Distribution Systems
7.1 Corona point systems
7.2 Resistor chains
8 High Voltage Stabilisation
8.1 Feedback voltage stabilisation
8.1.1 Voltage multiplier-high voltage supplies
8.1.2 Stabilisation of chain- and belt-charged accelerators
9 Accelerator Tubes
9.1 Beam optics
10 Ion Stripper System and Terminal Pumping
10.1 Charge exchange
10.1.1 Foil strippers
10.1.2 Gas strippers
10.1.3 Terminal pumping
11 Electron sources
11.0.1 Thermionic emission
11.0.2 Thermionic emission of electrons from a surface
11.0.3 Field emitters
11.0.4 Plasma electron sources
11.0.5 Photoelectric electron emission
11.1 Thermionic electron gun
12 Positive Ion Sources
12.1 RF-ion sources
12.2 Penning Ion Sources
12.3 Duoplasmatron Ion Sources
13 Negative Ion Formation Processes and Sources
13.1 Negative ion formation
13.1.1 Direct extraction from gaseous plasma
13.1.2 Negative-ion formation through charge exchange
13.1.3 Sputter-ion sources as a source of negative ions
14 Equipment for Beam Diagnostics
14.1 Measurement of the Beam Current
14.2 Monitoring the Beam Diameter and Position
14.3 Beam Profile Monitors
14.4 Beam Stoppers and Safety Equipment
15 Charged Particle Optics and Beam Transport
15.1 Specification of the ion beam
15.1.1 Beam currents, fluxes and fluence
15.2 Charge particle beam optics and beam transport characteristics for different
types of end-station beam-lines
15.3 Accelerator ion optics
15.3.1 Particle acceleration and the Lorentz equation
15.3.2 The drift section
15.3.3 Electrostatic acceleration
15.3.4 Electrostatic deflection
15.3.5 Magnetic dipole
15.3.6 Magnetic quadrupoles
16 Radiation Protection at an Accelerator Laboratory
16.1 Types of radiation
16.1.1 Interactions of accelerator-induced radiation with matter
16.2 Radiation dosimetry
16.3 Detecting Ionising Radiation
17 Computer control of accelerators
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Distributed intelligence
17.2.1 GUI design
17.2.2 Interlock design
17.3 Smart Accelerators and Industrie 4.0
17.4 Obsolescence considerations
17.4.1 Control system security
18 Vacuum technology for electrostatic accelerators
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Basic high vacuum technology
18.3 Kinetic theory and gas flow in vacuum systems
18.3.1 Differential pumping
18.4 Vacuum components
18.4.1 Vacuum pumps
18.4.2 Roughing and backing pumps
18.4.3 Vacuum valves
18.4.4 Vacuum meters
18.5 Vacuum fittings and materials
18.5.1 Vacuum fittings
18.5.2 Materials
18.6 Accelerator vacuum systems
18.6.1 Troubleshooting accelerator vacuum systems
19 Environmental and safety aspects of electrostatic accelerators
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Building environmental aspects
19.2.1 Electrical supply
19.2.2 Ventilation
19.2.3 Sulpher hexafluoride (SF6)
19.2.4 Other services
19.3 Environmental effects on electrostatic accelerators
19.3.1 Ground vibrations
19.3.2 Earthquakes
19.3.3 Magnetic fields
19.3.4 Flooding
19.3.5 Radiation shielding of the accelerator laboratory
19.3.6 Chemical environment
20 Applications of electrostatic accelerators
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Atomic and nuclear reactions
20.3 Charged particle beam modification of materials
20.3.1 Basic interactions
20.3.2 Electron irradiation
20.3.3 Ion beam modification of materials
20.4 Ion Beam Analysis Methods
20.4.1 MeV ion microprobes
20.4.2 Ion beam analytical methods
20.5 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS)
20.5.1 Ion Sources
20.5.2 Detectors
20.5.3 Gas Ionisation Detectors
20.5.4 Semiconductor Detectors
20.5.5 Time of Flight Detectors
20.5.6 Gas-filled magnets
20.5.7 X-ray Detectors


Paperback ISBN: 9780750329712

Ebook ISBN: 9781643273556

DOI: 10.1088/2053-2571/aaea76

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers


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