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Novel Microstructures for Solids

Richard A Dunlap

Description

In the early part of the 20th century, X-rays were used for the investigation of the atomic structure of solids. Until the 1980s, experimental evidence suggested that virtually all solid materials were either amorphous or ordered three-dimensional structures with translational and rotational symmetry that were described by classical crystallographic concepts. Since then, a number of structures that stretch the concept of a crystalline material have been discovered. In 1984, a solid phase, known as a quasicrystal, that possessed long-range order but lacked the periodicity of a crystalline material, was observed. At about the same time, novel molecular structures were observed for elemental carbon and, more recently, carbon has been prepared as a two-dimensional material. This book reviews some of the recently-discovered materials with novel microstructures. Part I describes the structure and properties of quasicrystalline materials, while Part II gives an overview of some of the unique phases that have been observed for elemental carbon. These unusual structures are discussed in the context of related materials with traditional crystallographic order.

About Editors

Richard A Dunlap received a BS in physics from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, an AM in physics from Dartmouth College and a PhD in physics from Clark University. Since receiving his PhD he has been a faculty member of the Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science at Dalhousie University, where he is currently a research professor. He is the author of four other books; Experimental Physics: Modern Methods, The Golden Ratio and Fibonacci Numbers, An Introduction to the Physics of Nuclei and Particles, and Sustainable Energy.

Table of Contents

Preface
About the Author
Part I Quasicrystallography
Chapter 1 Crystalline Structure
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Atomic Theory
1.3 The Structure of Crystals 1.4 Crystals and Symmetry
Problems
References and Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 2 X-ray Diffraction Techniques
2.1 Introduction
2.2 X-ray Diffraction 2.3 The Production of X-rays 2.4 X-ray Diffraction Experiments
Problems
References and Suggestions for Further Reading Chapter 3 Crystallographic Symmetry
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Allowed and Forbidden Symmetries 3.3 The Discovery of Five-Fold Symmetry Problem
References and Suggestions for Further Reading
Chapter 4 Aperiodic Structures
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Aperiodicity and Rabbits
4.3 Penrose Tilings
4.4 The Structure of Quasicrystals
Problems
References and Suggestions for Further Reading
Chapter 5 Applications of Quasicrystals
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Applications of Quasicrystals
References and Suggestions for Further Reading
Part II Allotropes of Carbon
Chapter 6 Allotropes and Crystal Bonding
6.1 Introduction 6.2 Allotropes of Carbon
6.3 Carbon Bonds
References and Suggestions for Further Reading
Chapter 7 Diamond
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Physical Properties of Diamond
Hardness
Electrical conductivity
Thermal conductivity
7.3 The Free Electron Model
7.4 The Nearly Free Electron Model and the Band Structure of Solids
7.5 The Electrical Conductivity of Diamond
7.6 Phonons and Thermal Conductivity Problems
References and Suggestions for Further Reading
Chapter 8 Other Crystalline Allotropes of Carbon
8.1 Introduction
8:2 Lonsdaleite 8.3 Graphite
Problem
References and Suggestions for Further Reading
Chapter 9 Nanostructured Allotropes of Carbon
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Carbon Rings and Graphene
Electrical properties
Thermal properties
Mechanical properties
9.3 Carbon Nanotubes
Electrical properties
Thermal properties
Mechanical properties
Hydrogen storage
9.4 Fullerenes Diamond precursor
Hardness and alloy strengthening additives
Photovoltaic cells
Nonlinear optical applications
X-ray and MRI contrast enhancement
Drug delivery
Hydrogen storage
9.5 Carbon Nanofoam
Problems
References and Suggestions for Further Reading

Bibliographic

Paperback ISBN: 9780750329552

Ebook ISBN: 9781643273372

DOI: 10.1088/2053-2571/aae653

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

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