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High Power Microwave Tubes: Volume 1

Vishal Kesari, B. N. Basu

Description

Our aim in this book is to present a bird's-eye-view of microwave tubes (MWTs) that continue to be important despite competitive incursions from solid-state devices. We have presented a broad and introductory survey that we hope the readers would be encouraged to read rather than going through lengthier books, and subsequently explore the field of MWTs further in selected areas of relevance to their respective interests. We hope that this book will motivate newcomers to pursue research in MWTs, and offer the opportunity for readers an overview of the salient features and prospects, as well as the trends and progress of them. The scope of ever-expanding applications of MWTs in the high-power and high-frequency regime will sustain and intensify the research and development in MWTs in coming years.

Volume 1 of the book describes the historical timeline of the development of MWTs, the high-frequency limitations of traditional electron tubes, means of overcoming them and the factors making MWTs superior to solid-state devices.

About Editors

Vishal Kesari is Scientist at Microwave Tubes Research and Development Centre Defence Research and Development Organisation, Bangalore, India. He has authored two books and numerous research papers in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings.

B N Basu received his PhD from Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, Calcutta University. He served several high-profile organizations in India and visiting assignments in the UK, Korea and Germany. He was President of Vacuum Electron Devices and Application Society, Bengaluru. He has authored or co-authored more than 100 research papers in journals and six monograph chapters in the area of microwave tubes, and has written four books across multiple publishers.

Table of Contents

 

Volume 1

Page No.

Foreword

i

Preface

ii

Acknowledgement

iv

Chapter 1

Introduction

1-15

Order of vacuum                              

5

High frequency limitations of electron tubes

6

Tiny electron tubes to alleviate high-frequency limitation

10

Advent of transit-time microwave tubes

11

Solid state devices versus microwave tubes                                    

11

Organization of the book

14

Chapter 2

Microwave Tubes: Classification, Applications and Trends

16-25

2.1

Classification

16

2.2

Applications                                                  

18

2.3

Trends in Research and Development

21

Chapter 3

Basic Enabling Concepts

26-47

3.1

Cathode              

26

3.2

Space-Charge-Limited and Temperature-Limited Emission

28

Child-Langmuir's relation under space-charge-limited condition of emission

29

Richardson-Dushman's relation under temperature-limited condition of emission

31

3.3

Space-Charge Waves and Cyclotron Waves

31

Space-charge waves

31

Cyclotron waves

33

3.4

Electron Bunching Mechanism

34

3.5

Induced Current due to Electron Beam Flow

38

3.6

Space-Charge-Limiting Current                                                        

40

Space-charge limited current for an infinitesimally thin hollow electron beam in a metal envelope

41

Space-charge limited current for a thick solid electron beam in a metal envelope

43

3.7

Conservation of Kinetic Energy in M-Type Tubes

45

Chapter 4

Formation, Confinement and Collection of An Electron Beam

48-72

4.1

Electron Gun

48

Pierce gun derived from a flat cathode

48

Pierce gun derived from a curved cathode  

50

Magnetron injection gun for the formation of a gyrating electron beam

60

4.2

Magnetic Focusing Structure

61

Busch's theorem

62

Brillouin focusing

63

Confined-flow focusing

66

Periodic permanent magnet focusing

67

4.3

Multistage Depressed Collector

70

Chapter 5

Analytical Aspects of Beam-Absent and Beam-Present Slow-Wave and Fast-Wave Interaction Structures

73-134

5.1

Analysis of Helical Slow-Wave Interaction Structures

75

5.1.1 Sheath-helix model

76

Field analysis of a helix in free space

76

Equivalent-circuit analysis of a helix in free space

78

Modeling of dielectric helix-supports of wedge cross section

80

Modeling of finite helix thickness

84

Modeling of dielectric helix-supports deviating from wedge cross section

84

Effect of non-uniformity of radial propagation

85

Modeling of vane-loaded metal envelope

86

Effect of structure losses

87

Asymmetry of dielectric helix-support rods

88

5.1.2 Tape-helix model

90

Dispersion relation of a helix in free space in the tape-helix model

90

Dispersion relation of a loaded helix in the tape-helix model

92

5.1.3 Interaction impedance

93

5.1.4 Dispersion and interaction impedance characteristics

94

5.2

Analysis of Fast-Wave Disc-Loaded Waveguide Interaction Structures  

100  

5.2.1 Steps for obtaining dispersion relation/characteristics

100

5.2.2 Steps for obtaining interaction impedance characteristics

101

5.2.3 Models of axially periodic structure

102

Infinitesimally thin metal disc-loaded circular waveguide

102

Disc-loaded circular waveguide of finite disc-thickness

102

Interwoven-disc-loaded circular waveguide

102

Alternate dielectric and metal disc-loaded circular waveguide

103

5.2.4 Field intensities in structure regions

104

Disc-free region

104

Disc-occupied region

105

Infinitesimally thin metal disc-loaded circular waveguide and disc-loaded circular waveguide of finite disc-thickness

105

Interwoven-disc-loaded circular waveguide

106

Alternate dielectric and metal disc-loaded circular waveguide

106

5.2.5   Relevant boundary conditions

107

5.2.6   Dispersion relation

107

Infinitesimally thin metal disc-loaded circular waveguide

107

Disc-loaded circular waveguide of finite disc-thickness

107

Interwoven-disc-loaded circular waveguide

107

Alternate dielectric and metal disc-loaded circular waveguide

108

5.2.7   Azimuthal interaction impedance

109

5.2.8   Structure characteristics

111

Dispersion characteristics

111

Azimuthal interaction impedance characteristics

122

5.3

Growing-Wave Interactions in Slow-Wave TWTs and Fast-Wave Gyro-TWTs

126

5.3.1 Beam-present dispersion relations

127

5.3.2 Gain-frequency response

129

Dimensional tapering for gyro-TWT broadbanding

131

References

135-138

Bibliographic

Paperback ISBN: 9780750328982

Ebook ISBN: 9781681745626

DOI: 10.1088/978-1-6817-4561-9

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

Series: IOP Series in Electromagnetics and Metamaterials

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