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Gravity, Magnetic and Electromagnetic Gradiometry

Strategic technologies in the 21st century
Alexey V Veryaskin


Gradiometry is a multidisciplinary area that combines theoretical and applied physics, ultra-low noise electronics, precision engineering, and advanced signal processing. This book provides readers with a comprehensive introduction, history, potential applications, and current developments in relation to some of the most advanced technologies in the 21st century. The author describes gravity gradiometers, magnetic gradiometers, and electromagnetic (EM) gradiometers. The first two types do not require any active sources of the primary physical fields whose gradients are measured, such as gravity field and ambient magnetic field. The latter one contains information about the non-uniformness of electromagnetically active media such as conductivity and magnetic permeability contrasts. These anomalies are the boundaries of mineral deposits, oil and gas traps, underground water reserves, buried artifacts, unexploded ordnance (UXO), nuclear submarines, and even cancerous human tissue.

Most of the developments are strictly controlled by Defence Export Control rules and regulations, introduced in all developed countries that typically require permission to transfer relevant information from one country to another. The book is based on the materials that have been available in public domain such as scientific journals, conferences' extended abstracts, and online presentations. In addition, medical applications of EM gradiometers are exempt from any control, and some new results relevant to breast cancer early detection research are published in this book for the first time.

About Editors

Alexey V Veryaskin, PhD, is the Director and Founder of Trinity Research Labs, an independent R&D laboratory based at the School of Physics of the University of Western Australia (UWA), as well as an Adjunct Professor and a member of the UWA Frequency Standards and Quantum Metrology Group. He has conducted research at institutions all over the world and is the inventor of a new string gravity gradiometer, a direct string magnetic gradiometer technology, and an Extremely Low Frequency Interferometric System (ELFISTM), which is a new type of electromagnetic gradiometer that is under development to be used for breast-cancer early detection.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Gravity Gradiometry

1.1 Introduction

1.2 History and Recent Developments

1.2.1 Quantum Gravity Gradiometers

1.2.2 Recent Gravity Gradiometer Developments at Lockheed Martin

1.2.3 Superconducting Gravity Gradiometers

1.2.4 String (Ribbon) Gravity Gradiometer Developments

1.2.5 Conventional Absolute Gravity Gradiometers

1.2.6 MEMS Gravity Gradiometers

1.3 Classification of Existing Gravity Gradiometers

1.4 Gravity Gradiometry Applications

1.4.1 Gravity Gradiometery in Oil, Gas and Mineral Exploration

1.4.2 Borehole Gravity Gradiometry

1.4.3 GPS-free Navigation

1.4.4 Underground Tunnels and Voids Detection

1.4.5 Cargo Hidden Masses Detection

1.4.6 Space Missions



CHAPTER 2: Magnetic Gradiometry

2.1 Introduction

2.2 History and Recent Developments

2.3 Direct String Magnetic Gradiometer Developments

2.4 Advantages of Measuring the Magnetic Gradients

2.5 Magnetic Gradiometry Applications

2.5.1 Magnetic Gradiometery in Oil, Gas and Mineral Exploration

2.5.2 Borehole Magnetic Gradiometry

2.5.3 Space Missions

2.5.4 Archeology

2.5.5 UXO Detection

2.5.6 Medical Applications



CHAPTER 3: Eletromagnetic (EM) Gradiometry

3.1 Introduction

3.2 EM Gradiometry in Geophysical Prospecting

3.3 A Novel EM Gradiometric Technique for Breast Cancer Early Detection

3.4 Passive EM Gradiometry



CHAPTER 4: Selected Topics of Gravity, Magnetic and

Electromagnetic Gradiometry

4.1 Spatial Coordinates and Reference Frames

4.2 Gravity Field Spatial Gradients: Representation and Properties

4.3 Gravity Gradient Tensor for Arbitrary Ellipsoid

4.4 A Simple Torsional Oscillator in Inhomogeneous Gravity Field

4.5 Noise Analysis and Problems of Optimum Detection in Gravity


4.6 Moving-base Gradiometry without Gradiometers: Back to the Future

4.7 Electromagnetic (EM) Gradiometry Application Examples



Paperback ISBN: 9780750329019

Ebook ISBN: 9781681747033

DOI: 10.1088/978-1-6817-4700-2

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers


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