# Electrons in Solids

- Contemporary topics

- Richard A Dunlap

- September 2019

### Description

The transport of electric charge through most materials is well described in terms of their electronic band structure. This book, however, deals with two cases where the charge transport in a solid is not described by the simple band structure picture of the solid. These cases are related to the phenomena of the quantum Hall effect and superconductivity. Part I of this text deals with the quantum Hall effect, which is a consequence of the behaviour of electrons in solids when they are constrained to move in two dimensions. Part II describes the behaviour of superconductors, where electrons are bound together in Cooper pairs and travel through a material without resistance.### About Editors

Richard A Dunlap received a BS in physics from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, an AM in physics from Dartmouth College and a PhD in physics from Clark University. He currently holds an appointment as a research professor in the Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science at Dalhousie University, and his previous books include *Experimental Physics: Modern Methods*, *The Golden Ratio and Fibonacci Numbers*, *An Introduction to the Physics of Nuclei and Particles*, *Sustainable Energy, Novel Microstructures for Solids*, *Particle Physics*, *The Mössbauer Effect* and *Lasers and Their Application to the Observation of Bose–Einstein Condensates*.

### Table of Contents

Part I The Quantum Hall Effect

Chapter 1 The normal Hall effect

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Basic physics of the Hall effect

1.3 The Hall effect and holes

1.4 The effective mass tensor

1.5 Applications of the Hall effect

References and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 2 The integer quantum Hall effect

2.1 Introduction

2.2: Discovery of the integer quantum Hall effect

References and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 3 High magnetic field technology

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Solenoids

3.3 Magnetic core electromagnets

3.4 Superconducting magnets

3

3.5 Bitter solenoids

References and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 4 Integer quantum Hall effect theory

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Quantum harmonic oscillator

4.3 Landau levels

4.4 Landau level degeneracy

4.5 Lifting of the Landau level degeneracy

4.6 Explanation of the plateaus

References and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 5 The fractional quantum Hall effect

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect

5.3 Theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect

References and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 6 Applications of the quantum Hall effect

6.1 Introduction

6.2 The resistance standard

6.3 Relationship of the quantum Hall effect to physical constants

References and suggestions for further reading

Part II Superconductivity

Chapter 7 Superconductivity and magnetism

7.1 Introduction

7.2 The discovery of superconductivity

4

7.3 The effect of magnetic fields on superconductors

7.4 Diamagnetism and the Meissner effect

References and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 8 Other properties of superconductors

8.1 Introduction

8.2 The London penetration depth

8.3 Flux quantization

8.4 The isotope effect

8.5 Specific heat

References and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 9 BCS theory

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Cooper pair formation

9.3 The superconducting energy gap

9.4 The coherence length

References and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 10 High temperature superconductivity

10.1 Introduction

10.2 The discovery of high temperature superconductors

10.3 Properties of high temperature superconductors

10.4 The theory of high temperature superconductivity

References and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 11 The Josephson effect

11.1 Introduction

11.2 The Josephson effect

5

References and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 12 Superconductor applications

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Power transmission

12.3 Particle physics

12.4 Fusion research

12.5 SQUIDs

References and suggestions for further reading### Bibliographic

Paperback ISBN: 9780750330114

Ebook ISBN: 9781643276892

DOI: 10.1088/2053-2571/ab2f2c

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers