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Atomic Physics

Paul Ewart


Atomic Physics provides a concise treatment of atomic physics and a basis to prepare for work in other disciplines that are underpinned by atomic physics, such as chemistry, biology and several aspects of engineering science. The focus is mainly on atomic structure since this is what is primarily responsible for the physical properties of atoms.

After a brief introduction to some basic concepts, the perturbation theory approach follows the hierarchy of interactions starting with the largest. The other interactions of spin, and angular momentum of the outermost electrons with each other, the nucleus and external magnetic fields are treated in order of descending strength. A spectroscopic perspective is generally taken by relating the observations of atomic radiation emitted or absorbed to the internal energy levels involved. X-ray spectra are then discussed in relation to the energy levels of the innermost electrons. Finally, a brief description is given of some modern, laser-based, spectroscopic methods for the high-resolution study of the details of atomic structure.

About Editors

Paul Ewart obtained a BSc and PhD in physics from Queen's University Belfast. He then became an SERC Advanced Fellow at the Blackett Laboratory at Imperial College London. Ewart's research work focuses on using lasers to study atomic and molecular physics, quantum optics and nonlinear spectroscopy. His current research includes interdisciplinary applications of laser spectroscopy to combustion and environmental physics, and he is a professor of physics and the head of the department of atomic and laser physics at the University of Oxford.

Table of Contents

1 Introduction

2 Radiation and Atoms

2.1 Width and Shape of Spectral Lines

2.1.1 Lifetime Broadening

2.1.2 Collision or Pressure Broadening

2.1.3 Doppler Broadening

2.2 Atomic Orders of Magnitude

2.2.1 Other important Atomic quantities

2.3 The Central Field Approximation

2.4 The form of the Central Field

2.5 Finding the Central Field

3 The Central Field Approximation

3.1 The Physics of the Wave Functions

3.1.1 Energy

3.1.2 Angular Momentum

3.1.3 Radial wavefunctions

3.1.4 Parity

3.2 Multi-electron atoms

3.2.1 Electron Con

3.2.2 The Periodic Table

3.3 Gross Energy Level Structure of the Alkalis: Quantum Defect

4 Corrections to the Central Field: Spin-Orbit interaction

4.1 The Physics of Spin-Orbit Interaction

4.2 Finding the Spin-Orbit Correction to the Energy

4.2.1 The B-Field due to Orbital Motion

4.2.2 The Energy Operator

4.2.3 The Radial Integral

4.2.4 The Angular Integral: Degenerate Perturbation Theory

4.2.5 Degenerate Perturbation theory and the Vector Model

4.2.6 Evaluation of (D^s ^lEusing DPT and the Vector Model

4.3 Spin Orbit Interaction: Summary

4.4 Spin-Orbit Splitting: Alkali Atoms

4.5 Spectroscopic Notation

5 Two-electron Atoms: Residual Electrostatic Effects and LS-Coupling

5.1 Magnesium: Gross Structure

5.2 The Electrostatic Perturbation

5.3 Symmetry

5.4 Orbital effects on electrostatic interaction in LS-coupling

5.5 Spin-Orbit Effects in 2-electron Atoms

6 Nuclear Effects on Atomic Structure

6.1 Hyperfi
ne Structure

6.2 The Magnetic Field of Electrons

6.3 Coupling of I and J

6.4 Finding the Nuclear Spin, I

6.5 Isotope Effects

7 Selection Rules

7.1 Parity

7.2 Con

7.3 Angular Momentum Rules

8 Atoms in Magnetic Fields

8.1 Weak
eld, no spin

8.2 Weak Field with Spin and Orbit

8.2.1 Anomalous Zeeman Pattern

8.2.2 Polarization of the radiation

8.3 Strong fi
elds, spin and orbit

8.4 Intermediate fi

8.5 Magnetic
eld effects on hyperfi
ne structure

8.5.1 Weak field

8.5.2 Strong
eld  9 X-Rays: transitions involving inner shell electrons

9.1 X-ray Spectra

9.2 X-ray series

9.3 Fine structure of X-ray spectra

9.4 X-ray absorption

9.5 Auger Effect

10 High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy

10.1 Absorption Spectroscopy

10.2 Laser Spectroscopy

10.3 Spectral resolution

10.4 \Doppler Free" spectroscopy

10.4.1 Crossed beam spectroscopy

10.4.2 Saturation Spectroscopy

10.4.3 Two-photon-spectroscopy

10.5 Calibration of Doppler-free Spectra

10.6 Comparison of \Doppler-free" Methods 


Paperback ISBN: 9780750329699

Ebook ISBN: 9781643274034

DOI: 10.1088/2053-2571/aaf801

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers


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