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Imaging Modalities for Biological and Preclinical Research: A Compendium, Volume 2

Preclinical and multimodality imaging
Andreas Walter, Julia Mannheim, Carmel J Caruana


The relentless pace of innovation in biomedical imaging has provided modern researchers with an unprecedented number of techniques and tools to choose from. While the development of new imaging techniques is vital for ongoing progress in the life sciences, it is challenging for researchers to keep pace. Imaging Modalities for Biological and Preclinical Research is designed to provide a comprehensive overview of currently available biological and preclinical imaging methods, including their benefits and limitations. Experts in the field guide the reader through both the physical principles and biomedical applications of each imaging modality, including description of typical setups and sample preparation.

Volume 2 focuses on in vivo imaging methods, including intravital microscopy, ultrasound, MRI, CT and PET. Correlative multimodal imaging, (pre)clinical hybrid imaging techniques and multimodal image processing methods are also discussed. The volume concludes with a look ahead to emerging technologies and the future of imaging in biological and preclinical research.

Key Features
  • Provides an overview of fast-evolving in-vivo imaging technologies.
  • Bridges biological and preclinical imaging.
  • Written by imaging specialists with extensive expertise in their respective fields.

About Editors

Andreas Walter is Director of Austrian BioImaging/CMI ( His goal is to advance correlated multimodality imaging (CMI) as a valuable tool in biomedical research. He is also the main proposer and Chair of the EU-funded COST Action COMULIS (CA17121) that aims at promoting the benefits of CMI through showcase pipelines and paving the way for its technological advancement and implementation as a versatile tool in biological and preclinical research (

Julia Mannheim is a group leader for PET and Multimodal Imaging Science in the Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy at the Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany, alongside being the Deputy Director of the Department since November 2014. She is an expert in PET quantification and reproducibility/reliability of the acquired data. Her focus is currently on the standardization of preclinical imaging to enhance the scientific integrity and reliability of the acquired data.

Carmel J Caruana is Professor and Head of the Department of Medical Physics of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Malta where he lectures in x-ray imaging, fluoroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasound and nuclear medicine imaging including PET/CT and PET/MRI. Carmel has over 30 years experience in the teaching of all imaging modalities to all healthcare professions and at all levels including the specialty level. He is very much involved in curriculum development for Medical Physicists at the European and international levels and was previously the Chair of the Education and Training Committee of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics. In the last few years he is encouraging Medical Physicists to expand their scope of practice to pre-clinical and biological imaging.

Table of Contents


Part II: In vivo imaging

II.1 - Intravital microscopy

II.2 - Optical coherence tomography (OCT)

II.3 - Photoacoustic imaging

II.4 - Optical imaging
II.4.a Fluorescence
II.4.b Bioluminescence
II.4.c Cerenkov luminescence imaging

II.5 - Confocal and multiphoton endomicroscopy

II.6 - Preclinical in vivo ultrasound imaging

II.7 - Magnetic resonance imaging
II.7.a Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging
II.7.b Functional magnetic resonance imaging
II.7.c Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

II.8 - Magnetic particle imaging

II.9 - Computed tomography in biomedicine

II.10 - Positron emission tomography (PET)

II.11 - Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

Part III: Correlative multimodal imaging and image data fusion

III.1 - Biological correlative imaging
III.1.a Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM)
III.1.b Correlative atomic force microscopy

III.2 - (Pre)clinical hybrid imaging
III.2.a PET/CT imaging
III.2.c Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging
III.2.d Combined fluorescence molecular tomography and computed tomography (FMT/CT) to track and quantify systemically applied NIR-dye labeled nucleic acid
III.2.e Hybrid PET-CT-ultrasound imaging

III.3 - Correlative multimodality imaging across scales

III.4 - Multimodal image processing
III.4.a Introduction—computer-assisted analysis of multimodality image data
III.4.b Multimodality image registration
III.4.c Learning-based approaches for multimodality imaging
III.4.d Multimodality image segmentation
III.4.e Visualization for correlative multimodality imaging
III.4.f Data compression algorithms for biomedical images
III.4.g Perspectives and conclusion—computer-assisted analysis of multimodality image data

Part IV: Future of Imaging in Biological and Preclinical Research
IV.1 Emerging technologies and outlook


Hardback ISBN: 9780750337458

Ebook ISBN: 9780750337472

DOI: 10.1088/978-0-7503-3747-2

Publisher: Institute of Physics Publishing

Series: IPEM-IOP Series in Physics and Engineering in Medicine and Biology


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